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Essay on Malaria

疟疾论文:疟疾综合指南:。简介 疟疾2。疟疾类型和人类疟原虫种类3。症状和 第4阶段。控制5。印度的抗疟疾运动。  

疟疾论文:简介、类型、症状 控制论文


论文内容:

  1. 疟疾简介
  2. 疟疾类型和人类疟原虫种类
  3. 疟疾的症状和阶段
  4. 疟疾的控制
  5. 抗疟疾运动

论文#1。疟疾简介:

疟疾是一种广为人知的人类疾病。它是由感染引起的 疟原虫是血液中的一种致病原生动物寄生虫。四种 疟原虫,即。,P、 间日疟原虫,恶性疟原虫。P、 到目前为止,疟疾和卵形疟原虫 已知能感染人类,引起不同类型的疟疾。女的 按蚊在人与人之间传播疟原虫,因此作为 载体或载体宿主。

疟疾是人类最常见的疾病之一。这在 热带和亚热带国家,尤其是非洲和亚洲 数百万人被感染。它是导致死亡和抵抗力降低的原因 每年有大量的人死亡,其中4岁以下的儿童死亡人数最多 岁。

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由于世界卫生组织和印度国家消灭疟疾方案(NMEP) 疟疾有效减少,但由于社会经济因素和 部分原因是抗滴滴涕蚊子和 抗药性寄生虫,根除感染的尝试已经失败 疟疾再次呈上升趋势。

已知约有60种疟原虫可引起爬行动物、鸟类的疟疾 和哺乳动物。根据Jahn的说法,人类有4种,猴子有4种,猴子有15种 鸟类,爬行动物13种,水牛、羚羊、松鼠、蝙蝠和 青蛙。

疟疾寄生虫广泛传播于南纬45°至北纬63°之间。 它们的地方病居住地在热带地区,但在许多地区也有发生 温带国家。感染候鸟的物种遍布各地 世界。一些禽疟原虫仅限于寒冷地区。 感染爬行动物的物种有局部分布。


论文#2。 疟疾类型和人类物种 Plasmodium:

The following distinct types of human malaria are recognized, based on the period of reoccurrence of fever. They are also caused by four different species of plasmodium:

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1. Benign Tertian or Vivax:

It is caused by P. vivax. Fever recurs after every 48 hours. Plasmodium vivax has a wide distribution in tropical and temperate zones. Incubation period is 10 days. Ring shaped trophozoite is half to one third the size of the erythrocyte.

Schizont fills the enlarged erythrocyte and has yellowish brown haemozoin. Enlarged erythrocyte has Schuffner’s dots. In the blood the schizont forms 12 to 24 merozoites, gametes fill the enlarged erythrocytes. It causes benign tertian malaria fever every 48 hours.

2. Malignant Tertian:

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It is due to P. falciparum. Fever recurs every second or third day, i.e. after 36 to 48 hours. P. falciparum is very common in tropics. Incubation period is ten days. Ring shaped trophozoite one sixth to one fifth of the erythrocyte often there are two trophozoites in one corpuscle. Schizont is two third to three fourth of erythrocyte which is not enlarged. Haemozoin is black.

Erythrocytes are not enlarged. They may even shrink and become greenish. They have no Schuffner’s dots. In blood the schizent forms eight to thirty six merozoites which are not seen in peripheral circulation. Gametocytes are crecentric occupying one side of the erythrocyte. It causes malignant tertian malaria fever almost continuously or from twenty four to forty eight hours.

3. Quartan:

It is caused by P. malariae. The fever recurs every fourth day that is after 72 hours. It may last to 40 years or more in untreated persons. P. malariae is found in tropical and temperate zones. Incubation period is twenty seven to thirty seven days. Ring shaped trophozoite is one third to one half the size of the erythrocyte schizont fills the erythrocyte which is not enlarged.

Haemozoin is dark brown. Erythrocyte has no Schuffner’s dots. In blood the 裂殖体形成六到十二个裂殖子。找到配子体。他们填补了 未扩大的红细胞。它导致夸坦疟疾热,甚至72 小时。

4. 卵形或轻度间期:

它是由卵形芽孢杆菌引起的。发烧第三天或48小时后复发。它是 危害不大,主要局限于热带非洲。

5. 复发疟疾:

间日疟原虫的外红细胞周期持续不间断。P、 ovale和P。 疟疾甚至在疾病完全治愈之后。这些旋回的裂殖子 可以随时攻击红细胞并导致疟疾复发。


论文#3。 疟疾的症状和阶段:

疟疾发作之前会出现头痛、恶心和肌肉疼痛。

疟疾发作的总时间为6-10小时,可分为3个小时 阶段:

(a) 以寒冷和颤抖为特征的寒冷阶段。

(b) 以高热(106°F)、呼吸加快和 心跳等。

(c) 出汗阶段,体温降至正常。

疟疾发作后,患者感到虚弱、疲惫和贫血。这个 疟疾可继发引起脾脏和肝脏肿大。

前驱症状:

在典型的疟疾感染中,轻度症状出现得很早,甚至在 潜伏期。这些症状包括恶心、食欲不振、便秘和 有时失眠。嘴巴经常感到干燥。舌头可能是 涂层很厚。出现头痛、肌肉疼痛和关节疼痛 可能是轻微的寒意。

发作:

这是疟疾的实际(临床)发作,最初开始于 很少有最早的红细胞周期,但在每个周期后都会重复。 显然,由于血佐菌素和 血液中的其他毒素。

发作的持续时间因人而异,包括三种 阶段:

(一) 严格阶段:

在这种情况下,患者会经历可怕的寒战和颤抖,脉搏加快 呼吸、严重头痛、恶心和呕吐。

(ii) 发热期:

大约一个小时左右,寒战消退,体温上升到 104°至105°F。

(iii) 延期阶段:

几个小时后,开始大量出汗,体温稳定 除了精疲力竭和虚弱外,患者还会感觉健康。

疟疾的逐渐恢复可能是由于 患者。


论文#4。 疟疾的控制:

消灭疟疾的斗争几乎遍及全世界。在印度 疟疾的预防和控制被视为一个国家问题 政府的抗疟疾部门负责处理这一问题。战争发生在 材料寄生虫通过同时攻击三个主要 正面。

换句话说,所有的控制措施都属于以下三个方面 类别:

消除或消灭媒介,即按蚊。

2、预防,即预防感染。

3、治疗,即治疗患者感染。

1. 灭蚊:

这有三种方式:

a、 在居民区喷洒滴滴涕大规模杀灭成蚊,或 或通过燃烧硫磺除虫菊酯和焦油樟脑,

b、 对脏水进行适当的排水,防止其停滞, 蚊子在水中产卵,

c、 销毁池塘、湖泊等中的蚊子卵和幼虫。, 无法排空。通过定期清洁、喷油和 引入食虫食肉动物,如鸭子、鱼类(如蚊子鱼- 食虫鱼、鳟鱼、小鱼、刺鱼等)和一些食虫动物 植物,如椭圆藻、红丝兰等。

2. 预防或预防感染:

(a) 门、窗等的金属丝镀锌,以防蚊虫进入。

(b) 使用驱蚊剂防止蚊虫叮咬。

(c) 睡在蚊帐下。

(d) 用土壤填充小型沟渠等杀死蚊子幼虫; 或在大型水体上喷洒煤油;或引入杀幼虫剂 fishes (e.g., Gamhusia, minnows, trout’s, Sticklebacks), birds (ducks) and plants (e.g., Utricularia) etc.

(e) Killing of adult mosquitoes by spraying insecticides like D.D.T. (Dichlorodiphenyl- trichloroethane), and B.H.C. (Benzene Hexa-Chloride).

Protection of healthy persons in malarious areas from being infected can be done through the use of insect repellents, nets, gloves and by screening the sleeping quarters.

(i) Defence against Mosquito Bites:

The mosquitoes can be prevented from biting by adopting various protective measures. The houses should be built on high grounds having good drainage and away from vegetation and marshy places. In the mosquito-infected areas, the horses should be made mosquito-proof by adequate screening all the doors, windows and ventilators, etc. Light-coloured clothing may also deter some species.

Mosquito nets should be used, especially during night, to keep away the mosquitoes. The cloth of mosquito net must not contain less than 100 holes in one square inch. The exposed parts of the body may be protected by the use of veils, gloves and boots, etc., or by the application of repellents, such as anti-mosquito creams (e.g., Odomos), mustard oil, and dimethyl phthalate or dimethyl carbate, etc. Application of repellents to the skin confuses the mosquito’s sensors and thus prevents it from biting.

(ii) Use of Prophylactic Drugs:

Healthy person’s inhabiting malarious regions should take small regular doses of prevention medicines as a precaution against infection through mosquito bites. A casual prophylactic drug which may kill the sporozoites before they may develop further in the body is unknown at present. However certain anti-malaria drugs, such as Quinine, Paludrine, Daraprim and Chloroquin, if taken in small daily or weekly does may prove satisfactory.

(iii) Reduction of Susceptibility to Infection:

The chances of infection can be greatly minimized by maintaining proper 健康它可以通过获得适当的营养,避免接触 适应恶劣的环境,并在生活中定期跟进。

3、疟疾治疗:

有许多抗疟疾药物可用,例如奎宁(从 金鸡纳树皮)、氯喹、巴鲁德林、阿他盐水、达拉普利等 达拉普利是一种有效的药物,它能杀死这两种寄生虫的寄生阶段 肝细胞和血液中的红细胞。最新的抗疟疾药物是甲氟喹。

疟原虫在人血样中不产生抗体或抗毒素 其他传染病的细菌,如霍乱和天花。因此 通过接种或接种来治疗疟疾是不可能的。在里面 对抗疗法,各种合成药物,如奎宁、阿拉布林、卡莫喹、, 氯喹、甲帕林(Atebrin)、帕鲁德林、血浆喹、瑞索秦、帕玛喹和 五喹等被用作不同阶段寄生虫的抑制剂。

目前这些抗疟疾药物本身都不是完美的 它们仅用于补充传统杀螨药的作用 或者奎宁,这是一种从金鸡纳树皮中提取的天然生物碱 生长在爪哇、秘鲁、斯里兰卡和印度的树。

奎宁被有效地用于治疗疟疾长达300年之久。但是 二战期间,日本控制了年的主要奎宁产区 东印度群岛。奎宁的缺乏导致了各种合成药物的生产 药物。

红细胞期分裂带主要负责 疟疾的临床症状。因此,疟疾可以得到最有效的治疗 通过杀裂殖酸或杀裂殖酸的方法。裂殖体很快被杀死 但配子体具有抵抗力,即使在恢复后仍能持续存在 使病人仍然对蚊子有感染力。

复发:

寄生虫的前红细胞期和外红细胞期对 resistance of the host or to the therapeutic action of any anti-material drug. Little or no damage occurs to the host’s tissues during these phase and haemozoin pigments are absent. Moreover, in case of P. vivax and P. malariae, the parasite may continue to live for years without causing clinical symptoms, in the liver cells serving a reservoir.

From this reservoir, the parasite may re-infect the blood and cause a malaria relapse, whenever the immunity of the resistance of the host has fallen down. Such relapses may occur repeatedly for at least two years in case of P. vivax, and for several years in case of P. malariae.


Essay # 5. Anti-Malaria Campaign in India:

About two decades ago, malaria was the most widespread disease in India. In 1952, the disease afflicted some seventy five million Indians every year, killing nearly eighty thousands. In 1952, the Ministry of Health of the Government of India launched a nationwide malaria eradication campaign, with the assistance of the World Health Organization (WHO).

Regular spraying of malaria infested areas with DDT and other insecticides and mass distribution of chlroroquin, an anti-malaria drug, almost eradicated malaria and brought it under control. In 1964, only one lakh persons suffered from malaria, none of whom died. But in recent years, malaria has come back with a vengeance, not only in India but in many other developing countries.

In 1975 alone twenty nine million people suffered from malaria, and 45 of them died in India. There have been several reasons responsible for the resurgence of malaria. The Indo-Pakistan War of 1965, which disrupted the procurement and distribution of insecticides, caused the initial setback to the anti-malaria campaign. Besides, the mosquitoes have learnt to avoid DDT-sprayed walls.

In one village of Assam, the malaria parasite (Plasmodium) has shown resistance to traditional anti-malaria drugs, like chloroquin. According to a WHO prediction, there shall be twelve million malaria cases in India by 1980, four lakh of them fatal. Then, there is the problem of environmental pollution due to excessive use of insecticides.

Hence chemical control of mosquitoes is becoming increasingly difficult. Other methods of fighting malaria are now being studied. The Vector Control Research Centre (VCRC) in Pondicherry, one of the research units under the Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) has discovered a species of water bug (fam. Notonectidae) which feeds on the eggs and larvae of mosquitoes.

Scientists have also identified a fungus in the paddy fields that kills the mosquito larvae. Four species of fish have been found as the largest consumers of mosquito larvae. Two of them are “guppy” and “gambusia”. Experiments are being conducted for genetic control of mosquitoes in consultation with Prof. Hannes Laven of West Germany, who found that certain strains of mosquitoes when crossed cannot breed.

In addition to biological and genetic control of mosquitoes, and water-management to flush out mosquito larvae from their breeding grounds, the ICMR is also trying, “the immunological approach”.

It means using methods which will make the body immune to the malaria parasites. The National Institute of Communicable Diseases (NICD) in Delhi, and the Post-graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research in Chandigarh are busy in developing vaccines to immunize people against Malaria.


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